Most Common Web Application Vulnerabilities
Over the last few years, the demand for web applications is expanding worldwide. Many startups and businesses are building web applications as per the requirement.
With the increasing craze, different web application security risks over the internet are also increasing. These risks are nothing but web application vulnerabilities.
For those who don’t know, web application vulnerabilities are faults that happen in web-based applications. They are also known as web application attacks.
These vulnerabilities are not the ones that occur at the network or the database level. But, these are the vulnerabilities that occur when the web applications communicate with different users across the networks, and hackers take advantage of the situation.
Hence, you should give importance to web application security to protect your web application from such vulnerabilities. Ultimately, a secure web application helps you reach a wider audience and build your business.
We have been providing web app development services to businesses and startups across the globe. Hence, we know about the old and new web application vulnerabilities that happen in different types of web applications.
1. SQL Injection Faults
SQL injection enables an attacker to utilize malicious data to attack databases or directories. Here, injection takes place as soon as a user sends a command or query to an interpreter and forces the interpreter to work on unintended commands and offer unauthorized data.
There are two main ways hackers implement SQL injection. First, they use SQL injection to attack the databases. Secondly, they use LDAP injection to attack directories.
An attacker inserts malicious content into the database and directories to access the content. By doing this, an attack accesses sensitive information such as username, password, etc. Along with this, an attacker can modify various things in the database.
2. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Cross-site scripting is a client-side attack. It is one of the common web application vulnerabilities. Here the attacker inserts a malicious script into the web page or web application. Further, the attack starts as soon as the user accesses the particular webpage or web application.
Due to this, an attacker can access essential information instantly or fool the user to disclose information.
With this web application vulnerability, an attacker would fetch various things, such as sensitive page content, session cookies, browser history, etc.
3. Broken Authentication
Broken authentication is a vulnerability which an attacker uses to hack all the authentication details of the users. Here, the term broken authentication relies on two main things: session management and credential management.
If these two things are not implemented well in a web application, it can result in serious web application vulnerabilities such as credential stuffing, password spraying, brute force, etc.
An attacker can temporarily or permanently access the user’s credentials if a user forgets to log out from a session. Other than this, an attacker can access various things such as session ID, tokens, URLs, and much more.
4. Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
CSRF is a web application vulnerability in which the attacker sends a fake request into the web page where a user is currently authenticated. The attacker changes the state of the web application rather than doing the data theft.
The main aim of the CSRF is to change the email ID, password, status, user profile information, etc. Depending on the user’s action, the attacker can get complete access to the account.
5. Sensitive Data Exposure
Data is very sensitive to the user’s needs, and it is necessary to protect it from unauthorized access. In this vulnerability, the attacker makes a man-in-the-middle attack or uses encryption keys to access and steal the data.
Sensitive data exposure only happens when things in the database are not stored accurately. Here, the attacker can access data because of different things like weak encryption, no encryption, transferring data into the wrong database, etc.
With this web application attack, an attacker can access banking information, health information, login credentials, social security number, etc. Hence, it leads to identity theft, credit card fraud, etc.
6. XML External Entities (XXE)
XML external entity is a web application vulnerability using which an attacker impedes the application’s processing of XML data.
Here, the attacker accesses various things into the application server and looks after the back-end or external system, which even the user can’t access in the web application.
This vulnerability results in a revelation of private data, server-side request forgery, etc.
7. Security Misconfiguration
Security misconfiguration means being unable to apply security controls in the web application or implementing all the security controls with some errors.
Several primary misconfigurations observed in the web application include unencrypted files, unpatched systems, unsecured devices, improper firewall protection, etc.
Security misconfiguration can affect every element of a web application. Anytime a misconfiguration is identified, it is crucial to inspect security for any attacks or breaches.
There is an effective way to stop this security misconfiguration. Here, you can use a deployment protocol to seamlessly build and deploy updates in a secure environment or segmented application architecture to stop this vulnerability.
Besides this, you can implement automatic deployment to ensure that your web app remains updated and protects from attacks.
8. Insecure Deserialization
Insecure deserialization is a well-known web application attack.
For those who don’t know, serialization is a valuable process to convert objects in a format that in the future can be restored. On the other side, deserialization is reverse where the data from a file stream of the network is fetched to build an object again.
In this vulnerability, an attacker can carry out attacks like denial of service (DoS) attacks, access-control related attacks, evade authentication, replay attacks, etc.
9. Using Components With Known Vulnerabilities
It is one of the latest web application vulnerabilities available on the list. In general, a web application is dependent on a lot of third-party components or code.
Various security vulnerabilities happen when you utilize third-party code you don’t know.
The vulnerability also happens when you are operating a web application on an unpatched web or application server, the server is called a component with known vulnerabilities.
Here, the attackers seamlessly find the components with proper security patch updates. As soon as you remove any component in the web application, attackers gain access to the sensitive data.
10. Unvalidated Redirects & Forwards
It is one of the common web application attacks. Various web applications redirect or forward a user to different URLs and pages within the web app or on the other web app. However, if these web applications don’t have an effective validation, they might accept false input and redirect users to an untrusted source.
Here, the attacker can take advantage of the situation by changing the original URL into a malicious URL to initiate a phishing scam or get users’ credentials.
Here, the attacker makes a slight change in the redirected URL to ensure that it looks genuine, and then users become victims of the attacker.
11. Insufficient Logging and Monitoring
Anytime a user forgets to log off from a crucial security-related event, or the event isn’t monitored, this kind of vulnerability happens.
Here, the attacker can fetch a massive amount of data and destroy it. Apart from this, an attacker can also get the vital credentials of the user.
12. Malicious Code
It is one of the most popular web application threats. Malicious code is a specific code or web script meant to initiate system vulnerabilities that can result in security breaches, information theft, back doors, and harm to a system. Moreover, this threat can’t be stopped by antivirus software.
In simple words, it is a code that offers a backdoor to an attacker to instantly access the web app from a remote computer. This attack occurs when developers copy & paste code from anywhere on the internet. Even though the developers don’t do it with purpose, it makes code susceptible to attacks.
Encapsulation vulnerability emphasizes the faults that developer has made while coding the web application. Here, encapsulation is known as combining data and actions into one unit. Encapsulation covers the entire code so that users can view an attractive interface. Users can access the web app, but they don’t know how it works.
For instance, a developer has complete access to the entire code of the web application and can fetch all the data. While the user requests specific data in the web app, they only access it if they have permission.
If the developers haven’t defined data and actions in the web app, it might possess an encapsulation vulnerability. Here, attackers take benefit of the web app by sending a message that leads to an error message. They can view the entire code and the process of the web app. Further, they can conduct different types of attacks.
14. Error Handling
Several of the attacks rely heavily on the output that an app responds to while facing different inputs. For instance, you might see a “404 not found” error while trying to access a website. For various businesses, this message helps to identify issues and resolve them.
But in the case of a web app, a detailed log of an error message provides various crucial details. Many times, attackers send a query that results in an error message. They perform this to get all the details to carry out an attack.
15. Credentials Management
User credential comprises an ID and a password. To utilize any web application, a user needs to enter an ID and password on the sign-in page. The web app further compares users’ data with the database, and if it gets matched, it offers access to the web application.
In most cases, all the user’s data is stored in plaintext or has weak encryption. The attackers take advantage of this to breach credentials and access the users’ accounts.
16. Directory Indexing
In general, web servers store the majority of files in one directory. Therefore, whenever a user wants to find a particular file, they can just provide the file name.
If a file is not available, then the server might provide a list of all the indexed files, thus allowing the user to select anything from it. This thing happens when the server has not been configured well.
Due to this, the attacker gets access to sensitive information about the web application and uses the same to carry out various thefts.
17. Directory Traversal
In directory traversal, an attacker obtains access to arbitrary files that are useful for operating a web application. These comprise web app core data, ID & password for back-end systems, and sensitive operating system files. However, the attacker mainly utilizes the web server software to take advantage of inappropriate security mechanisms and access files that are stored away from the web root folder.
18. Failure to Restrict URL Access
It is a web application vulnerability that deals with access control rights. Generally, every button on a web app redirects to a specific location. Sometimes, the web app restricts users to access several pages and resources. A failure to restrict URL access means that a web app restricts users’ URLs when they click on a specific button. However, the same thing can be accessed into a browser using a URL.
Anytime a web app fails to restrict URL access, the attackers utilize the technique known as Forced browsing. With the help of this technique, the attacker avoids website security by accessing files instantly rather than the links. Hence, they get access to various essential source files of the web application.
19. Insecure Cryptographic Storage
In this digital world, encrypting data is one of the standard things to avoid unauthorized access to susceptible information. Encryption happens when information is saved in a readable format like plain text and then leverages a mathematical algorithm to mix it up and make it unreadable. For carrying out this entire task, an encryption key is needed. But when anyone gets access to the encryption key, it becomes readable.
Insecure Cryptographic Storage vulnerability takes place in any of the situations mentioned below:
- Encryption of sensitive data is not done properly
- Inappropriate key storage and management
- Utilizing weak encryption algorithms
- Using an algorithm developed internally without conducting any test
20. OS Command Injection
OS Command injection is one of the most common web application vulnerabilities. It is a vulnerability in which the ultimate purpose is to run arbitrary commands on a host OS with the help of a vulnerable application. The attack happens while an attacker supplies bad commands to the system shell via forms, cookies, and HTTP headers.
The attackers have the complete freedom to update, change or read data, including commands to capture data or infrastructure or carry out other harmful activities. The OS command injection particularly relies on the privileges. It happens when there is not enough input validation.
21. Race Condition
In a web application, several tasks need to be performed in a particular order to get the desired output. For instance, to login into a web app, a user needs to enter a user ID and password, then the security system verifies the details with the database before providing access.
The attackers take benefit of the time gap between when the service gets started and the result is delivered. The attack occurs in two ways: hindrance occurred due to the non-reliable processes, and hindrance occurred by the reliable processes.
We hope you have now understood some of the most common web application vulnerabilities happening worldwide.
If you already have a web application and face these vulnerabilities, then don’t hesitate to contact us.
We are a well-known web application development company. Hence, we can understand your situation and provide you with a solution accordingly.